Theological Research Exchange Network
Theological Research Exchange Network

Excerpted from
Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia, 1976-1990:
An Annotated Bibliography of Studies in Western Languages
Compiled and Edited by Frank Joseph Shulman

With Contributions by Patricia Polansky and Anna Leon Shulman
Westport, Conn., and London:
Greenwood Press, 1998. xxviii, 1055p.
(Bibliographies and indexes in Asian studies, no.2)


[Updated as of January 1998]

American Doctoral Dissertations

Approximately 41,000 newly completed American doctoral dissertations encompassing a very wide range of subject areas are sent to UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, for microfilming each year. Within five days of their receipt, master negatives are produced from the typescripts. The original typescripts are then returned to the institutions that awarded the authors their degrees, while the master negatives are assigned unique order numbers (indicated by the prefix "UM" within Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia) and are stored in temperature and humidity controlled vaults to await the arrival of orders from both individual and institutional customers. At the same time, 350-word long summaries of the dissertations, prepared and submitted by the thesis authors, are compiled and edited by UMI staff for publication in the monthly issues of Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI). Together with some of the thousands of titles which are not received by UMI contrary to widespread popular belief, not every American institution of higher learning has always sent its dissertations to Ann Arbor, while other universities continue to withhold selected titles from the UMI microfilming program these dissertations gradually find their way into standard and specialized bibliographical reference works. They are automatically listed in the annual volumes of American Doctoral Dissertations, compiled on behalf of the Association for Research Libraries by UMI, as well as in the annual and quinquennial supplements to UMI's multivol-ume Comprehensive Dissertation Index, 1861-1972. Other, much more focused guides such as the several cumulative bibliographies of dissertations on individual Asian countries that have been produced by Frank Joseph Shulman and volumes 1-16 (1975-1993) of his bibliographical journal Doctoral Dissertations on Asia (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Association for Asian Studies, 1975-1996) provide retrospective coverage for doctoral research in specific subject areas.

The procedure for getting hold of unpublished dissertation typescripts is not necessarily an easy one, especially as they are not part of the regular book trade. With the single exception of the
Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., which obtains microfiche copies of many current American doctoral dissertations through copyright deposit and most others through a standing order with UMI, American libraries today do not systematically acquire thousands of dissertations each year for their general collections. (Even fewer hold copies of master's theses accepted at institutions other than their own.) Furthermore, because of prohibitive administrative costs, the possible inconvenience to readers on their own campuses, and the potential for damage or loss of borrowed volumes, the majority of universities do not routinely lend copies of their dissertations to other institutions through interlibrary loan whenever those same items are commercially available. For these reasons, the following guide not only outlines the availability of dissertations from UMI but also summarizes the present policies of some major schools which have awarded numerous doctorates for research on China but in the past have not sent all such dissertations to Ann Arbor for microfilming. It also briefly explains how selected American theses in the areas of law and theology are presently being handled.


More than 550 universities in North America now participate in the
UMI cooperative dissertation microfilming program, inaugurated in the late 1930s. The involvement of such institutions with internationally renowned graduate degree programs on China as Columbia University, Harvard University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Michigan enables UMI to provide coverage for an estimated 95% of all current American theses and an estimated 80-85% of all past American dissertations. At the present time, copies of 35mm positive (i.e., black on white) microfilm made at a reduction of 15-20x, 98-page positive microfiche copies (for all titles produced since 1976), softbound and hardbound paper copies reproduced at about 2/3 their original size (i.e., approximately 6-1/2 x 8-1/4 inches in size), andfor dissertations received after 1980 softbound and hardbound paper copies reproduced at their full size (8-1/2 x 11 inches) are available on demand for most of the 1.3 million dissertations that UMI stores within its vaults. Whenever an order is received, UMI individually reproduces the entire thesis typescript in microform or on paper (depending on the customer's preference), using the printing master or duplicate negative film in its possession. For individuals associated with universities, colleges and high schools in the United States and Canada (this includes their libraries, departments, faculty, staff, and students), the prices of single copies as of January 1998 were as follows: $32.50 for microfilm and microfiche copies, $36.00 for softbound paper copies and $43.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at 2/3 of their original size, and $39.00 for softbound paper copies and $46.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at full size. (All prices are subject to change without ad-vance notice. Shipping and handling are included in the price of each dissertation. Applicable taxes are extra.) Students and faculty members at several hundred academic institutions in North America also have the option of purchasing unbound, shrink-wrapped, full size paper copies of dissertations at $24.50 each through "Dissertation Express", a recently established service offered at no charge to the interlibrary loan (ILL) units of academic libraries. Customers submit their orders directly to a participating ILL office, which then transmits them to UMI over the World Wide Web through a Netscape interface. In the United States, the requested dissertations are delivered to the same ILL office within 72 hours. For non-academic customers in the United States and Canada, in turn, as well as for ALL customers elsewhere throughout the world (where no distinction is made between academic and non-academic customers), the prices as of January 1998 were as follows: $46.00 for microfilm and microfiche copies; $57.50 for softbound paper copies and $69.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at 2/3 of their original size, and $60.50 for softbound paper copies and $72.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at full size. Regardless of their provenance and the manner in which they are placed, all orders for dissertation copies should contain the entire order number which appears for each thesis in the present bibliography (indicated by the prefix "UM") or in Dissetation Abstracts International, together with the author's last name, the complete dissertation title, the preferred format (micro-film, microfiche or paper), and the size of the paper copy and the type of binding desired (whenever applicable), as well as the customer's name, complete mailing address and telephone number.

Except in the case of "
Dissertation Express", all orders from individuals and institutions in the United States and Canada should be sent to UMI Dissertation Services, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1764, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106-1346 (U.S.A.). Copies may also be ordered by telephone toll-free within the United States and Canada by calling 1-800-521-3042. Orders by fax should be directed to either 734-973-1464 or 1-800-308-1586. Orders from individuals and institutions elsewhere should be placed either directly with UMI in Ann Arbor, Michigan, or through one of UMI's international sales agents. They are as follows:

For Europe, Africa, the Middle East (except Israel) and Pakistan: UMI/Information Publications International, The Old Hospital, Ardingly Road, Cuckfield, West Sussex RH17 5JR, United Kingdom (Telephone: 44-1-444-445000; Fax: 44-1-444-445050; E-mail: [email protected])

For Hong Kong and Singapore: IPL Technologies (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., 152 Beach Road #11-05, Gateway East 0718,Republic of Singapore (Telephone: 65-293-4947; Fax: 65-293-7526; E-mail: [email protected])

For the People's Republic of China: UMI, Room 316, Kang Fu Gong, No.31A, Sha Tan Bei Jie, Beijing 100009,People's Republic of China (Telephone/Fax: 86-10-64056654; E-mail: [email protected])

For the Republic of China (Taiwan): Jet-Win Enterprises Company, Ltd., 91 Ho Ping East Road, 4th Floor, P.O. Box 22-32, Section 1, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (Telephone: 02-391-4280; Fax: 02-394-3103; E-mail: [email protected]); Transmission Books and Microforms Company, Ltd., 7th Floor, No.315, Section 3, Ho Ping East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (Telephone: 02-736-1058; Fax: 02-736-3001)

For Japan: Kinokuniya Company, Ltd., 38-1 Sakuragaoka 5-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156, Japan (Telephone: 33-439-0161; Fax: 33-439-0839; E-mail: [email protected]); Maruzen Company, Ltd., Publishing Division, New Media Department, 2nd Maruzen Building, 9-2 Nihonbashi 3-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103, Japan (Telephone: 33-272-0517; Fax: 33-274-0597); Yushodo Company, Ltd., Dissertation Service Center, 3-42-3, Ohtsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112, Japan (Telephone: 33-943-1540; Fax: 33-945-6112; E-mail: [email protected])

For Korea: UMI-Korea, Suite 1205, Life Combi Building, 61-4 Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-Ku, Seoul 150-010, Repub-lic of Korea (Telephone: 82-2-782-3560; Fax: 82-2-782-3774; E-mail: [email protected])
For Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam: UMI/IPI Malaysia, 27-3A (Third Floor), Jalan SS 23/15, Taman S.E.A., 47400 Petaling Jaya, Selangor D.E., Malaysia (Telephone: 60-3-703-8280; Fax: 60-3-703-8272; E-mail: [email protected])

For Indonesia: UMI, U.S. Commercial Center, Wisma Metropolitan II, 3rd Floor, Jalan Jend. Sudirman Kav. 31, Jakarta 12920, Indonesia (Telephone: 62-21-5262850; Fax: 62-21-5262855; E-mail: [email protected])

For India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka: Allied Publishers Subscription Agency, UMI Department, 750 Anna Salai, Chennai 600 002, India (Telephone: 91-44-852-3938; Fax: 91-44-852-0649; E-mail: [email protected])

For Australia and New Zealand: UMI, Suite 245, Melbourne Central Executive Suites, 222 Latrobe Street, Melbourne, Vic. 3000, Australia (Telephone: 61-3-9667-0238; Fax: 61-3-9667-0235; E-mail: [email protected])

For all other countries: UMI International Sales and Marketing Department, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 (Telephone: 734-761-4700; Fax: 734-973-7007; E-mail: [email protected])

UMI is a for-profit publishing company. It does not offer any interlibrary loan service or maintain any reading room in Ann Arbor. Further information about UMI and its services including the most up-to-date listing of prices, on-line ordering, and the "Dissertation Express" service"is available on its World Wide Web site at

Publication through UMI, it should be kept in mind, does not preclude any other form of publication. Indeed, many dissertations also eventually appear in print as monographs, working papers, journal articles and/or contributions to edited publications, as is indicated to a considerable extent in the entries within Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia.

If there is no UM order number within a bibliographical entry appearing in this volume, the dissertation is not available from UMI and must be obtained either from its degree awarding institution or through interlibrary loan from an academic library that already owns a copy of the work.


The University of California at Berkeley (UCB) joined the UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) microfilming program in 1962 and for several years automatically sent all new dissertations to Ann Arbor. The University discontinued this arrangement between fall 1970 and fall 1975, however, and since winter 1976 it has also permitted some new degree recipients to withhold their dissertations from UMI. (Up to five percent of UCB doctoral dissertations are with-held in this fashion each year.) For details regarding the purchase of microfilm copies of those dissertations, for information about their availability through interlibrary loan, or for a current price list, contact: Interlibrary Services Department, Interlibrary Loan/Photoduplication Unit, 133 Doe Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-6000 (Telephone: 510-642-1598; Fax: 510-643-8476; E-mail inquiries and orders not currently accepted; World Wide Web site: As of January 1998, microfilm copies were sold @ $45.00 per title to customers in the United States and @ $50.00 to customers in all other countries. Both inquiries and orders may be submitted by fax as well as by mail, but only inquiries may be made by telephone. The Library does not supply either photocopies or microfiche copies.


Many of the dissertations accepted by the University of California at Davis before 1979 must be ordered directly from the university library. They often must be retrieved from an off-campus storage facility that is shared by several University of California libraries. As of January 1998, copies were available both in paper format (@ 20¢ per page) and on microfiche (@ 25¢ per microfiche card). There was a minimum charge of $5.00. Contact the Department of Special Collections, General Library, 100 North West Quad, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5292 (Telephone: 530-752-1621; Fax: 530-752-3148). Dissertations completed since 1979 are normally available through UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) in Ann Arbor, but occasionally they are withheld from microfilming for up to three years at their authors' request.


In 1948, Chicago instituted a requirement that all dissertations be microfilmed on campus by the Joseph Regenstein Library's Department of Photoduplication in lieu of formal publication and (in many instances) that a positive microfilm copy be deposited at the
Library of Congress. An alphabetical, unannotated listing of these works was published every other year through the late 1980s. Beginning in autumn 1974, seventeen departments and professional schools at Chicago also required the publication of a 350-600 word summary in Dissertation Abstracts International. In all cases, however, the dissertation typescripts themselves continued to be available for purchase in positive microfilm and in unbound xerographic form only from the Regenstein Library. Then, in January 1994, the University of Chicago and UMI (formerly University Micro-films International) reached an agreement covering the publication and distribution of all retrospective dissertations and master's theses and all new and forthcoming dissertations. Newly accepted Chicago dissertations are now being sent directly to UMI for microfilming and are available on microfilm, in microfiche, and in bound paper copies reproduced through xerography. Over 32,000 master microfilm negatives of titles accepted prior to 1994, in turn, have been transferred to UMI for storage and for the fulfillment of orders. Work has been underway to update the Dissertation Abstracts International database in order to provide comprehensive information about them and to implement normal ordering procedures. All pre-1994 dissertations can be acquired on 35mm microfilm and, for the foreseeable future, on paper through the "copyflo" reproduction process. Most order numbers for University of Chicago dissertations bear the prefix "T-" (e.g., UM T-27673 in Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia). The Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., holds copies on microfilm of a large percentage of Chicago dissertations completed since 1956.


The Fletcher School began to participate in the UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) program only in 1986. Dissertations completed prior to that year are not available through UMI nor have abstracts of them ever appeared in Dissertation Abstracts International. The typescripts of such Fletcher theses may be obtained through interlibrary loan for use on the premises of the borrowing library, however, and arrangements can be made for the purchase of unbound photocopies (@ 10¢ per page, plus handling and postage as of January 1998) as long as the author's written permission has been secured. Microfiche and microfilm copies are not available. For further information, write to the Edwin Ginn Library, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, Mass. 02155-7082 (Telephone: 617-627-3700, x2172; Fax: 617-627-3736; E-mail (interlibrary loan coordinator): [email protected]; No general e-mail address as of January 1998).


Since the late nineteenth century, copies of all Harvard University Ph.D., Ed.D. and Th.D. dissertations have been deposited with the University Archives (Pusey Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138; Telephone: 617-495-2461; Fax: 617-495-8011; E-mail: [email protected]). Hardbound copies of the most recently accepted theses are housed in the Archives on campus; hardbound copies of all earlier titles are now kept at an off-campus storage facility and can be retrieved in response to requests that are submitted at least two working days in advance of the date when they are needed. Since March 1982, Harvard University doctoral dissertations from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS) have been routinely included in the UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) microfilming program. Prior to that date, only a few departments in GSAS notably Astronomy and Chemistry regularly sent their degree recipients' theses to Ann Arbor; and with a few exceptions, abstracts of Harvard theses never appeared in print. The University Archives does not currently participate in any interlibrary loan program (it discontinued its policy of lending the second copies of doctoral dissertations and senior honors theses to most other institutions in June 1974), but 35mm positive microfilm and unbound paper copies of unrestricted pre-1982 dissertations that are unavailable from UMI may be purchased from Imaging Services, Widener Library, Room 90, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 02138 (Telephone: 617-495-3995; Fax: 617-495-0403; No departmental e-mail address as of winter 1998). Graduate School of Business Administration non-restricted theses are available from UMI beginning with the school' s 1972 dissertations and Graduate School of Education theses are available from UMI beginning with 1977. Positive microfilm and paper copies of their respective theses prior to those years may be purchased from Imaging Services at Widener Library. All inquiries regarding price estimates should be directed to that office. Note that prices vary depending on whether a master negative microfilm copy of a requested dissertation already exists. (If a master negative microfilm of a dissertation must first be produced to fulfill an incoming request, the price for an unbound photocopy as of January 1998 was $105.00, and for a 35mm positive microfilm copy, $65.00. If a master negative already exists, the price for an unbound photocopy was 25¢ per page and for a 35mm positive microfilm copy 12¢ per frame.) Doctor of Design dissertations from Harvard's Graduate School of Design are available from UMI; they are not available on interlibrary loan. Dissertations from the Harvard Medical School, the School of Dental Medicine, and the School of Public Health are neither sent to UMI nor abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International. Copies are deposited in the Rare Books Department of the Countway Library of Medicine (10 Shattuck St., Boston, Mass. 02115; Tel.: 617-432-2142; Fax: 617-432-0693), however, and may be purchased from that library as long as they are over five years old. The Harvard Law School also does not participate in the UMI microfilming program, but selected S.J.D. theses have been microfilmed as part of the "Hein's Legal Theses and Dissertations Microfiche Project" and are now commercially available from William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1285 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14209. Contact the Special Collections Department, Harvard Law School Library (Langdell Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 02138) for information regarding the availability of all other S.J.D. theses.


Since Autumn 1989, all University of Hawaii doctoral degree recipients have been required to submit their dissertations to UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) for microfilming. During the preceding two decades, Ph.D. and Ed.D. degree recipients were given the option of withholding their dissertations. Furthermore, for some other doctoral students, participation in the UMI microfilming program between 1974 and 1989 merely meant the publication of their thesis summaries in Dissertation Abstracts International. As a consequence, only a selection of the theses submitted to Hawaii during the 1970s and 1980s are both abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International and sold by UMI. Readers seeking copies of dissertations which are available solely from Hawaii among them more than forty dealing either with China or with Inner Asia must apply for them by directly contacting the Library External Services Program, Thomas Hale Hamilton Library, Room 112, University of Hawaii, 2550 The Mall, Honolulu, HI 96822 (Tel.: 808-956-5956; Fax: 808-956-7109; E-mail: [email protected]). Photocopying costs as of January 1998 were: $15.00 per title for the first 20 pages, 25¢ for each additional page, plus shipping charges (prices are subject to change). Prepayment is required. Copies of a dissertation can be supplied in microform only if the University library already owns a microfiche copy. In such cases, the cost for a microfiche copy was $15.00 for the first 20 fiche, 50¢ for each additional fiche, plus shipping. Dissertations are supplied on interlibrary loan with the approval of the Hawaiian-Pacific Librarian only if second or third copies of the title are held within the Library. Occasionally authors have asked that their dissertations not be photocopied; the Library honors such requests.


Important dissertations concerning China have been submitted to several academic departments including Economics, Linguistics, Ocean Engineering, Political Science, Urban Studies and Planning, and Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. Through the late 1980s, MIT did not participate in the UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) program in any way. Since the 1990/91 academic year, however, bibliographical citations and abstracts for MIT dissertations have regularly appeared in Dissertation Abstracts International. Copies of MIT dissertations remain exclusively available from the MIT Libraries in full size paper format and in negative microfilm and microfiche. They may be ordered from the MIT Libraries, Document Services, Room 14-0551, 160 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, Mass. 02139-4307 (Tel.: 617-253-5668; Fax: 617-253-1690; E-mail: [email protected]). Prices as of January 1998 were as follows: For customers in the United States: $51.00 for paper copies; $36.00 for microfilm and microfiche copies (regardless of their length). For customers in all other countries including Canada: $69.00 for paper copies; $41.00 for microfilm and microfiche copies. All prices include shipping (first-class or airmail) and handling; they are subject to change without advance notice. For further information about MIT dissertations, write directly to the Institute Archives, Room 14N-118, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139-4307 (Tel.: 617-253-5136).


The University of Southern California (USC) has participated in the dissertation program of UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) in varying degrees over the years. Between 1958 and summer 1975, USC routinely sent its dissertations to Ann Arbor for microfilming. Even though the abstracts of all degree recipients continued to appear in Dissertation Abstracts International, it withdrew from the UMI program in 1976 and did not rejoin until 1994. Copies of all titles dating from that period are available for purchase exclusively from the Micrographics Department, Doheny Memorial Library, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, California 90089-0182 (Tel.: 213-740-3573; Fax: (213) 749-1221: Attention Micrographics Department; No departmental E-mail address as of winter 1998). They are available in two formats: 35mm positive microfilm copies and softbound paper copies reproduced at about 2/3 their original size (i.e., approximately 6-1/2 x 8-1/4 inches in size). Microfiche copies, however, cannot be supplied. Prices vary according to the format desired and, in the case of paper copies, the number of pages in the thesis typescript. As of January 1998, microfilm copies were sold at $12.50 each. The prices for paper copies, in turn, generally ranged between $27.00 and $110.00. In all cases, shipping and handling were extra and varied according to the destination of the order. Contact the Micrographics Department at the Doheny Library for the prices of specific titles as well as for further particulars.


Since 1995, William S. Hein & Co., Inc. has been contracting with law schools throughout the United States to microfilm both their doctoral dissertations and master's theses on diazo microfiche at a 24x reduction in standard 98-page format. Some schools have determined that the quality of their dissertations warrants the filming of their entire collection; others have elected to have their theses filmed on a title by title basis. As of January 1998, the Hein's program had covered fourteen schools including the Harvard Law School, New York University, the University of Wisconsin, and Yale University. Complete sets are being sold to research libraries around the world at a cost of approximately $4.00-$6.00 per title. Individual theses are also available at a minimum charge of $10.00, with the actual price depending on the number of fiche involved. Print copies from the fiche can be provided at an additional charge. For further information, contact William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1285 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14209-1987 (Tel.: 800-828-7571; Fax: 716-883-8100; E-mail: [email protected]).


Over 7500 master's theses and doctoral dissertations accepted by more than sixty different theological institutions in the United States and Canada among them Bob Jones University, Concordia Seminary (St. Louis, Missouri), Dallas Theological Seminary, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Western Conservative Baptist Seminary, and the Yale Divinity Schoolare available for purchase on microfiche and as paper copies from the Theological Research Exchange Network (TREN). Most of the titles in the TREN collection date from or after 1983. A few of the participating schools, however, have had their earlier holdings retrospectively microfilmed. Some of these dissertations deal with China, Taiwan or the overseas Chinese communities. As of January 1998, 98-frame (24x reduction) and 392-frame (48x reduction) negative microfiche copies cost $5.00 per title (worldwide). Unbound (looseleaf) 8-1/2 x 11 inch paper cop-ies were available at 15c per page. Payment may be made by Visa and Mastercard as well as by checks drawn on U.S. banks. Orders from outside the United States should not be prepaid as the cost of foreign shipment (by either airmail or seamail, according to the customer's specifications) is added to the invoice. Microfilm copies are not available. All orders should be sent directly to: Theological Research Exchange Network, P.O. Box 30183, Portland, Oregon 97294-3183 (U.S.A.) (Telephone and Fax: 1-503-771-5108; E-mail: [email protected]). For further information, consult the World Wide Web site of TREN at

The dissertations accepted by a number of American theological institutions whose China-related studies appear within this bibliography among them the American Baptist Seminary of the West, Christian Theological Seminary, Columbia Theological Seminary, Fuller Theological Seminary (selected dissertations), Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Luther Northwestern Theological Seminary, Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary (before 1991), Pacific School of Religion, Reformed Theological Seminary (except for D.Miss. theses accepted after 1995), and San Francisco Theological Seminary are not available either through TREN or through UMI. Contact those institutions directly for copies of their respective theses.


Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., has actively acquired microform copies of a wide range of publications in nearly all subject areas since the early 1940s, and in 1953 it established a separate Microform Reading Room to serve the growing needs of the general public as well as of Congress. Among the Library's current holdings of more than six million titles in that format are positive microform copies of nearly all of the American dissertations which are available from UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) as well as some dissertations from universities which have not participated in the UMI program. Nearly one-half of these dissertations (currently about 20,000 titles per year) are received through the Library's Copyright Office as part of the copyright registration process, a procedure which considerably delays the Microform Reading Room's ability to accession them. The remainder are purchased directly from Ann Arbor on a standing order basis and are normally shipped to the Library within three months of the publication of their summaries in Dissertation Abstracts International. Delays frequently occur, however, before they subsequently become available for regular use. Theses acquired since 1961 are not cataloged. In all cases, the UMI order number ("UM" within the bibliographical entries appearing in Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia) serves as their call number. Dissertations defended through 1977 are available only on 35mm positive microfilm; most theses since that year are on microfiche. The Library of Congress also has extensive, but not complete, holdings on 35mm microfilm of the dissertations accepted by the University of Chicago since 1956 as well as many of the theses filmed by the University of Southern California between the mid-1970s and the early 1990s. All microfilmed dissertations are housed in the closed stacks of the Microform Reading Room. Like the Library's other general reading rooms, the Microform Reading Room is open to all researchers over high school age but its dissertation holdings must be retrieved by the staff. To request a thesis, the researcher should complete a microform request slip indicating the UMI order number as well as the author's surname and the short title of his or her thesis. Photocopies of individual pages may be made on card-operated reader-printers (@ 25¢ a print as of January 1998), but researchers wishing complete copies of dissertations must purchase them from UMI or from other appropriate vendors. Interlibrary loan service is provided only to Federal agency libraries for official business. For further information, contact the Microform Reading Room, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4660 (Telephone: 202-707-5471; Fax: 202-707-1957; No current departmental E-mail address; World Wide Web site [for the entire Library of Congress]:

With the exception of individual titles which are produced by UMI, current foreign dissertations are acquired only on the basis of their subject content, with special consideration being given to the fields of law, library science, music, United States history, government and letters. A search of the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) and RLIN (Research Library Information Network) bibliographic databases by an individual author or thesis title will indicate those cases in which the
Library of Congress presently owns copies. Foreign dissertations (especially printed German theses) in the fields of technical agriculture and clinical medicine are transferred to the National Agricultural Library (10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2351; Tel.: 301-504-5755; Fax: 301-504-5675 [Document Delivery Services]; E-mail: [email protected]; World Wide Web site: and the National Library of Medicine (8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20894; Tel.: 301-594-5983, or 1-888-346-3656; Fax: 301-402-1384; E-mail: [email protected]; World Wide Web site: All others including those published prior to 1940 are sent to the Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Illinois.

For further particulars, readers may wish to consult the article "Treasures and Trivia: The Universe of Microfilmed Dissertations on East Asia at the Library of Congress," by Frank Joseph Shulman (International Association of Orientalist Librarians Bulletin no.26-27, 1985, pp.7-12; reprinted in Association for Asian Studies, Inc., Committee on East Asian Libraries Bulletin no.80, December 1986, pp.11-16).


Inquiries about the availability of copies of dissertations not distributed through UMI or the
Theological Research Exchange Network (TREN) should be directed to the libraries of their degree-awarding institutions. It is particularly important to keep in mind that tens of thousands of American dissertationsincluding many on Asiawere accepted by American institutions of higher learning during the years before those universities chose to join the UMI microfilming program. (The listing of "participating institutions" in the prefatory pages of the monthly issues of Dissertation Abstracts International indicates the year in which each university began sending dissertations to UMI for publication. They generally range from the early 1950s through the late 1980s.) If those dissertations were never published as books or articles, then with occasional exceptions they are available only from the libraries of the universities where either one or two copies were deposited. The policies of American universities regarding the provision of interlibrary loan service and the sale of copies of all dissertations which fit into this category vary from one school to the next.

Australian, Canadian, European, Soviet / Russian, and East Asian Doctoral Dissertations


Provided that the author grants written permission (on either a general or a case-by-case basis), photocopies and/or microform copies of dissertations accepted by Australian institutions of higher learning can be readily provided to overseas customers at a cost based on the number of pages or illustrations. Photocopies are not usually supplied directly to researchers; requests for copies should be made through the interlibrary loan unit of a university or research library. Most dissertations may also be consulted on site, and in some cases they may be borrowed on interlibrary loan within Australia. Only in exceptional circumstances, however, are overseas loans authorized. As of 1997, there was no national repository of Australian theses to which all inquiries could be directed.

The following provides an overview for selected Australian institutions.

Australian National University: ANU theses are not available for loan. Positive microfiche or microfilm, but not xerographic, copies are offered for sale subject to the author's permission, which will be sought by ANU. A quote is provided in each case. Requesting libraries are required to fill in and return the ANU library form entitled "Request for copying of unpublished thesis or similar library material under Section 51 of the Copyright Amendment of 1980." As of January 1997, copies of most dissertations were sold at a price of A$60.00-80.00, depending upon their length. All inquiries should be directed to the Theses Officer, Menzies Library, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 0200, Australia.

Flinders University of South Australia (Bedford Park, South Australia 5042): The library obtains two copies of each doctoral dissertation, one of which is available for loan. 35mm microfilm copies and photocopies may by purchased by requesting libraries.

Griffith University (Nathan, Queensland 4111): A paper copy of each thesis is available for loan, and photocopies may be purchased on request. A quote for each purchase request is provided.

La Trobe University (Bundoora, Victoria 3083): Subject to the author's consent, one copy of each thesis deposited in the library is available for loan. Microfiche copies only can be purchased on request (again subject to the author's permission) at a flat rate per title.

University of Melbourne (Parkeville, Victoria 3052): The library lends film copies of the dissertations in its possession. Microfilm and photocopies may also be sold to requesting libraries for the use of individual researchers upon completion of a University of Melbourne Copy Request and Declaration Form. In some instances restrictions on the copying of theses may apply. Copies may be sold for inclusion in library collections only with the author's permission.

Monash University (Clayton, Victoria 3168): Archival copies of theses are not for loan. Microfiche copies may be purchased for A$65.00 per title; photocopies of theses will not be made. On-site readers are expected to use the microfiche; the original is available only when no other copy is available.

University of New South Wales (Sydney, New South Wales 2052): Theses are not available for loan but a microfilm (and for some recent theses a microfiche) copy can be purchased. The author's permission is needed and a quote is provided (currently A$45 per microfiche). All requests for theses, regardless of subject, should be sent to the Social Sciences and Humanities Library.

University of Queensland (St. Lucia, Queensland 4067): Duplicate and microfilm copies only are available on loan, and microfilm and photocopies of most dissertations are available for purchase. Prices vary according to the length of the dissertation.

University of Sydney (Sydney, New South Wales 2006): Duplicate copies only can be lent on interlibrary loan. Microfiche copies can be purchased.

University of Western Australia (Nedlands, Western Australia 6907): Copies are not available on loan, but microfiche and photocopies are available for sale subject to the author's written permission and the library's receipt of a signed "Conditions of use" form. Prices vary according to the length of the dissertation.


Under an agreement concluded in December 1997 with the
National Library of Canada, UMI (University Microfilms International) was designated as the worldwide agent (Canada included) for all Canadian doctoral dissertations and master's theses that have been microfilmed since 1965. All backfiles of microfilmed dissertations were then transferred from the Library's previous agent, Micromedia Limited (Ottawa, Ontario), to Ann Arbor, Michigan. For the foreseeable future, titles dating from 1965-1974 will continue to be available only on 35mm positive microfilm; titles dating from 1975-1989, in turn, will remain available only on 24x positive microfiche. (The sole exception is the limited number of Canadian dissertations that were microfilmed by UMI during the 1960s and 1970s for sale to customers outside of Canada. They are sold in additional formats as well.) Dissertations with International Standard Book Numbers (ISBN s ) greater than ISBN 0-315-58860-8i.e., titles filmed after 1989as well as all new Canadian theses that UMI receives directly from Canadian institutions of higher learning will be available in three formats: full size paper copie s , microfilm and microfiche. For individuals associated with universities, colleges and high schools in both Canada and the United States (this includes their libraries, departments, facul-ty, staff, and students), the prices of single copies as of January 1998 were as follows: $32.50 for microfilm and microfiche copies, $36.00 for softbound paper copies and $43.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at 2/3 of their original size, and $39.00 for softbound paper copies and $46.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at full size. (All prices are subject to change without advance notice. Shipping and handling are included in the price of each dissertation. Applicable taxes are extra.) Students and faculty members at several hundred academic institutions in North America also have the option of purchasing unbound, shrink-wrapped, full size paper copies of the dissertations filmed after 1989 at $24.50 each through "Dissertation Express". For ALL customers elsewhere throughout the world (where no distinction is made between academic and non-academic customers), the prices as of January 1998 were as follows: $46.00 for microfilm and microfiche copies; $57.50 for softbound paper copies and $69.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at 2/3 of their original size, and $60.50 for softbound paper copies and $72.50 for hardbound paper copies that are reproduced at full siz e . Whenever possible, orders should include either the ISBN number or microfiche number that accompanies each Canadian thesis entry in Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia (e.g., ISBN 0-315-70692-9; fiche n o.6150 4) or the "NN" number (e.g., NN70692; "NQ" beginning with 1997 Canadian dissertations) that appears together with the thesis summary published in Dissertation Abstracts International. Except in the case of "Dissertation Express", all orders from individuals and institutions in Canada and the United States should be sent to UMI Dissertation Services, 300 North Zeeb Road, P.O. Box 1764, Ann Arbor, Mich-igan 48106-1346 (U.S.A.). Copies may also be ordered by telephone toll-free within Canada and the United States by calling 1-800-521-3042. Orders by fax should be directed to either 734-973-1464 or 1-800-308-1586. Orders from individuals and institutions elsewhere should be placed either directly with UMI in Ann Arbor, Michigan, or through one of UMI's international sales agent.

Microfiche copies of most Canadian dissertations dating from the 1960s to the present are also available on national and international library loan directly from the National Library of Canada, Interlibrary Loan, 395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1A ON4, Canada (Telephone: 613-996-3566; Fax: 613-996-4424; E-mail: [email protected]).


Many of the dissertations in the humanities, the social sciences and law that have been accepted by universities in Paris are available for on-site use at the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne, 47 rue des Écoles, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 or at the Bibliothèque interuniversitaire Cujas de Droit et des Sciences Économiques, 2 rue Cujas, 75005 Paris. (Cujas also has extensive holdings of printed dissertations accepted by other European universities, particularly German institutions.) Inquiries should be addressed to the "Service des Thèses" of those respective libraries. Authorized French university dissertations in the humanities and certain social sciences, especially theses for the degree of doctorat d'État ès lettres, are printed or reproduced in microform by the Atelier National de Reproduction des Thèses de Lille (9 rue Auguste Angellier, 59046 Lille Cedex) and are deposited at the Centre de documentation Sciences humaines of the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS). These dissertations are also distributed to the Bibliothèque nationale de Paris and to university libraries throughout France. Both photocopies and microfiche copies of them can be produced for sale in response to incoming requests. A similar procedure applies in the case of selected doctorat d'État theses in the natural sciences, economics and related subjects, which are reproduced by the Atelier de reproduction de l'Université de Grenoble II. These dissertations are available as well at selected libraries outside of France including the
Center for Research Libraries (CRL) in Chicago, Illinois, which since 1952 has been receiving from the French Ministry of Education single copies of all printed doctoral dissertations (thèses imprimées) from all universities in France in all subjects except for medicine and veterinary medicine. By contrast, typescripts of unpublished dissertations (thèses dactylographiées) are not as widely available. While they can be read at the libraries of their degree-awarding institutions and, in many cases, at the Sorbonne and Cujas libraries, they cannot be photocopied or microfilmed without the permission of their respective authors. Furthermore, as none of the several universities that together comprise the University of Paris has provided CRL with the requisite information for contacting the authors, CRL has been unable to purchase copies of their unpublished theses in recent years. CRL reports, however, that it has had some success in acquiring copies of dissertations from other French universities. As in the case of German doctoral scholarship, fully half or more of all French theses produced in a typical academic year are written in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, and related health scien-ces. Copies of many of them are on deposit at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (Quai François Mauriac, 75706 Paris) as well as at the libraries of their degree-awarding institutions. A comprehensive listing of French university library addresses may be found in the volumes of the Inventaire des thèses de doctorat soutenues devant les universités françaises, prepared by the Ministère de l'Education Nationale and published annually through 1992 by the Fichier Central des Thèses at Université de Paris X-Nanterre (Bâtiment F, 200 avenue de la République, 92001 Nanterre Cedex); on the World Wide Web site maintained by the Ministère de l'Éducation Nationale at; and in a number of other standard reference sources.


Most German dissertations both Inaugural-Dissertationen and Habilitationsschriftenthat were submitted to universities in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) prior to German reunification in 1989/90 are either available in a paperbound, printed format or are on sale from commercial publishers, some of whom (most notably Peter Lang in Frankfurt and Brockmeyer in Bochum) have specialized in their publication. As a consequence of the longstanding German university practice of widely distributing copies of newly defended dissertations, printed by offset from their typescripts in a run of 50 to 150 copies at their authors' expense, they are deposited at university and research libraries throughout Germany and are recorded in annual catalogues where they are controlled by a uniform call number system. Whenever a dissertation is known to have been printed for deposit and distribution in this manner, its title, place and date of printing (if indicated), and pagination are provided in Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia. In addition, copies of most printed as well as commercially published German dissertations may also be found in a number of research libraries outside of the country (they are often acquired on exchange or as gifts), while microfilm or microfiche copies of most unpublished titles may also be pur-chased directly from the libraries of the degree-awarding universities. There appears to have been little standardization among these microforms, however, and their technical quality has ranged from excellent to nearly illegible. Copies of most disserta-tions accepted by institutions in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) have been deposited at the Staats-bibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Potsdamer Strasse 33, 1000 Berlin 30, Germany) and at least some of them are currently available in microform. The Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Illinois holds a large percentage of the paperbound German dissertations that have been printed since World War II and has been acquiring a number of East German dissertations on China in microform (particularly titles originating from Humboldt Universität zu Berlin). A search of the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) and RLIN (Research Library Information Network) bibliographic databases by the name of an author or by the title of a thesis will identify other North American as well as selected European university libraries that currently own cataloged copies of individual titles.


Most doctoral dissertations accepted by the University of Hong Kong may be consulted at the University's main library provided that the authors have authorized their use. They are not, however, available for loan. Again, subject to the author's permission, most theses can be purchased on 35mm positive microfilm at a reduction of 11x by customers overseas for their private study and research via the Interlibrary Loan Department of the University of Hong Kong Library at a cost that is based on their total number of pages. The dissertations, however, are not available for purchase either as photocopies or in microfiche format under any circumstance, nor does the University of Hong Kong sell copies in any format to overseas libraries for their permanent collections. There is no procedural difference for individuals in obtaining either a doctoral or a master's thesis. Applications should be made through the library of a university or research institute as an interlibrary loan request and be directed to the Interlibrary Loan Department, University of Hong Kong Libraries, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (fax: 852-2859-2215 or 852-2859-7011; e-mail: [email protected]). A quote will be provided upon the receipt of each request together with a "Thesis Declaration form" (a form officially notifying the requester that the dissertation is to be used only for private study and research) that is to be filled out by the requesting client. Prices vary according to the length of the dissertation typescript. As of January 1997, there was a charge of HK$200.00 (US $25.00) for each dissertation under 400 pages in length and an increment of HK$100.00 (US $12.50) for each additional 200 pages. Upon the Library's receipt of the completed Thesis Declaration form, the request will be processed and a microfilm copy of the thesis with an invoice will be supplied in approximately two to three months time. Payment may be made in U.S. dollar checks but not by means of credit cards.

Write directly to the libraries of the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for details regarding the availability of copies of their respective dissertations.


Japanese dissertations are held by the National Diet Library (Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) in Tokyo, where one copy of each completed thesis is routinely deposited in accordance with Japanese government regulations, as well as by either the libraries or designated academic units of their degree-awarding institutions. The dissertation typescripts are available for reading on site, and the National Diet Library accepts overseas requests for copies in order to assist foreign scholars in their research. Under certain circumstances, the author's written permission must be obtained before an entire thesis can be reproduced. The price of a photocopied dissertation is based on its number of pages, with postage and handling being extra. Photocopies are generally less expensive than microfilm copies. (As of October 1997, black and white photocopies of library materials generally cost ¥35 or ¥70 each, depending on their size, whereas the first frame of a negative microfilm cost ¥150 and each additional frame ¥45.) All charges must be paid in Japanese yen by international postal money order, banker's transfer, or bank draft payable in Tokyo upon receipt of the invoice, which will be sent to the applicant following the shipment of the copy of the dissertation itself. Libraries and individual scholars seeking to purchase copies are advised to request a cost estimate in advance as well as a set of "NDL request forms for loan/photoduplication" that are to be submitted whenever a dissertation is ordered. Provide the library catalogue number (e.g., 61-J-147) whenever it is available. Inquiries should be directed to the International Cooperation Division, Library Cooperation Department, National Diet Library, 1-10-1 Nagata-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan (Fax: 81-3-3597-9104).


Most Dutch and Scandinavian university dissertations have either been printed at their authors' expense or have been published commercially. They are available in the collections of a number of university and research libraries outside of northern Europe, among them the
Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Illinois and (in some cases) at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. Inquiries regarding the availability of extra copies of printed dissertations may be directed to the general libraries of the universities to which they have been submitted.


Copies of most Swiss university doctoral dissertations are deposited in the national library of Switzerland (Schweizerische Landesbibliothek), whose holdings of such theses currently exceed 100,000 titles, as well as in the central libraries of their degree-awarding institutions. Dissertations that have either been published commercially or printed at their authors' expense are also available in the collections of a number of university and research libraries outside of Switzerland, among them the
Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Illinois and (in some cases) at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The annual volumes of the Jahresverzeichnis der schweizerischen Hochschulschriften = Catalogue des écrits académiques suisses contain catalogue numbers for the copies that are on deposit in the national library. For further information, contact the Schweizerische Landesbibliothek, Hallwylstrasse 15, CH-3003 Bern, Switzerland (Telephone: (031) 3228911; Fax: (031) 3228463; E-mail: [email protected]).


In 1971, with support and encouragement from the Standing Conference of National and University Libraries (SCONUL), the British Library Document Supply Centre (
BLDSC, formerly known as the British Library Lending Division) at Boston Spa inaugurated a program for increasing the availability of British doctoral research. Academic institutions are encouraged to lend copies of their dissertations to the Centre, where they are microfilmed. They are then listed under broad subject headings in the monthly issues of the British National Bibliography for Report Literature (British Reports, Translations and Theses prior to January 1998), the national grey literature bibliography, and in the SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) database, which is available online through STN International and on CD-ROM from Silver-Platter. When requests for these dissertations are subsequently received, duplicate microfilm copies (or microfiche if held) are supplied on interlibrary loan. With the exception of theses from the Universities of Cambridge and Leeds, where certain restrictions apply, copies may also be purchased as 35mm positive microfilm, microfiche (if a microfiche master exists) or paper enlargements. Microfilm copies (or microfiche if available) may also be made available for consultation in the Library's Boston Spa or London reading rooms.

Each and every request for a British dissertation whose accession number is identified by a "D" prefix (e.g., D31352/80), whether for a loan or sale copy, must be accompanied by a Thesis Declaration Form (TDF) signed by the person wishing to consult the thesis in which he or she pledges not to publish any quotations or information derived from that thesis without the prior written consent of its author or of his degree-awarding university. Copies of this form are available from the Centre; they were also printed in the front of each monthly issue of Dissertation Abstracts International through 1994. Dissertations identified by a "DX" prefix (e.g., DX76044), however, do not need to be accompanied by such a form since their respective degree-awarding institutions have concluded that the copyright statement which appears in all British theses supplied by the
BLDSC offers sufficient copyright protection. As of April 1998, prices per title for customers within the United Kingdom were £29.82 for a microfiche or microfilm copy and £42.30 for a softbound paper copy. Elsewhere in the world, they were: £42.00 (US$74.00) for a microfiche or microfilm copy, and £73.50 (US$126.00) for a softbound paper copy (plus VAT where applicable). These prices includ e d postage and handling. Courier service is also available at an addi-tional charge. Payment may be made by check, payable to "The British Library", or by credit card (Mastercard, Visa, Eurocard, American Express). Whenever possible, the BLDSC accession number for pertinent thesis holdings has been included within Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia to facilitate the submission of requests. All requests should be sent to the British Thesis Service, British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, United Kingdom (Telephone: +44-1937-546229; Fax: +44-1937-546286; E-mail: [email protected]; World Wide Web site for the British Library's Document Supply Service at

From 1988 through 1992, the
BLDSC and UMI (formerly University Microfilms International) jointly distributed a number of newly microfilmed British dissertations. Any British dissertation listed in Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia that contains a bibliographical citation to its abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International remains available for purchase from UMI by customers outside of the United Kingdombut at the prices routinely charged by the BLDSC rather than at the lower UMI prices.

British Library Document Supply Centre's dissertation microfilming program has been very successful in several respects. Over 135,000 theses are now readily available through it, and new acquisitions are being made at the rate of some 6000-7000 titles each year. Nevertheless, virtually all older (i.e., pre-1970) British dissertations, many of the theses completed during the 1970s and early 1980s, and some newer ones are available only from the libraries of the universities which have accepted them. The University of Birmingham, for example, participated in the BLDSC program only from 1977 to 1981. Bristol University and Keele University did not join until the mid-1980s. Dundee University, the Royal College of Art, and the University of Wales at Aberystwyth send only a portion of their dissertations to the BLDSC. And the Universities of Bradford, Edinburgh, Leeds, Leicester, Manchester, St. Andrews, and Wales [Swansea] withdrew from this microfilming program in 1992. While the University of London - one of the major world centers of scholarship on Asia - initially limited its participation in the BLDSC program to the years 1974-1981, since Fall 1995 its dissertations have again become available through the BLDSC. The BLDSC will also microfilm and supply copies of earlier London theses (e.g., dissertations completed during the 1980s) that it does not already hold upon receiving orders for them. Thesis declaration forms (TDFs) are not needed for any University of London dissertations.

Short abstracts (generally around 300 words in length) of many British dissertations have been published since the mid-1980s in the Aslib (Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux) Index to Theses with Abstracts Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the Council for National Academic Awards (London: Aslib, published four or five times yearly), and their appearance there has been duly noted in Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia. Their inclusion in the Aslib index, however, is not interrelated in any way to their availability through BLDSC.

For further information regarding the availability of theses submitted to British institutions, consult the section entitled "Availability of Theses" in the most current volume of Aslib's Index to Theses, contact the British Thesis Service of the
British Library Document Supply Centre at the aforementioned address, or write directly to the library of the degree-awarding university.


Unpublished Soviet/Russian dissertations are generally available only at the institutions where they have been accepted and at the Russian State Library (Rossiskaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka, formerly the Lenin State Library) in Moscow, which in 1945 became the depository for all kandidat nauk (often cited as the equivalent of the Ph.D. degree in the West) and doktor nauk dissertations defended in the Soviet Union. The State Library's holdings of Russian/Soviet dissertations currently exceed 700,000 titles, and it maintains a dissertation reading room (zal dissertatsii) for on-site access to many of its unrestricted theses. Russian dissertation authors normally print a more readily available abstract of their findings known as an avtore-ferat. Ranging from 20 to 60 pages in length, they contain summaries of the authors' hypotheses, their major discussions and their conclusions as well as bibliographical references. Furthermore, many Soviet/Russian kandidat nauk dissertations appear in some published form either as journal articles or as separate books while the majority of doktor nauk dissertations appear as monographs. (Some authors, it should be noted, are conferred higher degrees on the basis of their previously published monographs.) Both the Library of Congress and the
Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Illinois acquire and retain copies of Soviet/Russian dissertations and printed abstracts (the latter normally in microform), regardless of the type of degree, whenever they are available.

Patricia Polansky's description on pages 419-20 of Doctoral Dissertations on Japan and on Korea, 1969-1979, compiled and edited by Frank Joseph Shulman (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1982), provides information about Soviet dissertations, their bibliographical control, and their availability in the past .


Center for Research Libraries (CRL) in Chicago, Illinois holds more than 750,000 doctoral-level dissertations from universities outside of the United States and Canada in microfiche, microfilm and paper formats. The Center's collection of foreign dissertations encompassing nearly all subject areas except for clinical medicine (in the case of some universities) and including dissertations written in many languages has been developed through longstanding exchange or deposit agreements with over one hundred foreign universities, by transfers from the Library of Congress and through deposits by CRL member libraries in the United States and Canada, and from purchase requests (on a title-by-title basis) generated by faculty and students at member libraries. In addition to guiding the development of the dissertation collection, CRL member institutions can borrow dissertations with no restriction on the number of items or on the length of their loan period as long as the items are not recalled for use by other individuals. Non-members have access to the dissertation collection either by visiting the Center or through interlibrary loan. CRL charges transaction fees for loans to non-member libraries. Contact the Center for current prices as they are set each year at the beginning of July. (For 1997/98 the fee was $25.00 per thesis for requests from the United States and Canada and $30.00 for requests from outside of North America.) Loans to non-member libraries are for a period of two weeks. The Center for Research Libraries loans dissertations only; it does not have authorization to sell any copies.

Most of the Center's dissertation collection originates from universities in western and northern Europe, primarily Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. While copies of the complete typescripts of unpublished Soviet/Russian dissertations are still not available at CRL, since 1990 the Center has been systematically acquiring microfiche copies of many of the dissertation abstracts (avtoreferaty) that are listed in Leto-pis avtoreferatov dissertatsii and it frequently also holds copies of published Soviet/Russian theses. These abstracts are substantial, up to about sixty pages in length. In addition, the Center's collection includes many dissertations from universities in Asia, Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. CRL holdings of dissertations generally date since 1880, but some go as far back as 1800. A comprehensive listing of the universities from which printed dissertations are acquired on exchange or on deposit and the dates when CRL began receiving them appears in each edition of the Center for Research Libraries Handbook. Copies are available in most interlibrary loan units of North American academic libraries and are available from the Center.

In support of the bibliographical research conducted as part of the compilation and editing of Doctoral Dissertations on China and on Inner Asia, CRL has generously purchased or otherwise acquired over three hundred China-related dissertations accepted by universities in Australia, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Virtually all of the Australian, Austrian, British and formerly East German university theses are in microform; most Dutch and West German dissertations are paperbound printed editions. All of these titles along with hundreds of other dissertations concerning China that were previously added to the holdings of CRL are now readily accessible to researchers throughout North America.

The Center for Research Libraries' dissertation collection is uncataloged; items are arranged on shelves alphabetically by author. Given a particular author and a title, CRL can verify if it owns that thesis, but it cannot provide any access by subject or topic. For the majority of titles, the Center's holdings of dissertations are not represented in OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) or in any other on-line or printed catalogue. To verify its holdings or to obtain further information in general, contact the Access Services Department, Center for Research Libraries, 6050 South Kenwood Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637-2804 (Telephone: 773-955-4545; 800-621-6044; Fax: 773-955-4339; E-mail [Linda Naru]: [email protected]; No general e-mail address as of winter 1998). General information about the Center is available on its World Wide Web site at

Kennith L. Slagle's article "Acquiring Dissertations at the Center for Research Libraries" (Focus on the Center for Research Libraries, vol.15, no.4, July-August 1995, pp.3-4; reprinted in the bibliographical journal Doctoral Dissertations on Asia, vol.16, 1993, pp.331-32), provides an overview of some of the issues involved in the ongoing development of CRL's holdings of foreign dissertations as well as some insights into the process and pitfalls which CRL must face in obtaining copies of foreign Ph.D. dissertations in the demand purchase program. For a broader overview of the production, distribution, and access to dissertations accepted by institutions in France, Germany and the United Kingdom, consult John B. Rutledge's article "European Dissertations: Production, Access, and Use" (Collection Management, vol.14, no.1/2, 1994, pp.43-67).


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